"Childhood Trauma Remembered" Pamphlet Available
Under the editorial direction of Matthew Friedman, MD, PhD. and Susan Roth, PhD., members of ISTSS and contributors outside the organization have prepared a 24-page document titled "Childhood Trauma Remembered: A Report on the Current Scientific Knowledge Base and its Applications." This paper provides scientific information about childhood trauma, psychotherapy with trauma survivors, and the latest scientific evidence about forgetting and remembering traumatic childhood events. It includes information about human memory and guidelines for applying this knowledge to clinical and forensic practice with trauma survivors. The pamphlet is clearly written in language accessible to educated lay readers as well as mental health professionals.
At this time, a subcommittee of the ISTSS Public Education Committee chaired by Laurie Anne Pearlman, PhD., is working on disseminating the information included in the pamphlet. Copies of the pamphlet will be mailed to ISTSS members and other interested parties in mid-May. A brief summary, prepared by Judith Herman, MD, follows.
The committee includes Brian Litzenberger, PhD. (project manager), Ted Bober, M.S.W., Berthold Gersons, MD, PhD., Elana Newman, PhD., and Camille Wortman, MSW. They are working with ISTSS board and staff members ad hoc. Plans are underway to disseminate the pamphlet in various formats to other professional organizations and the general public. The committee is determining the feasibility of a press conference or a media educational exchange in June. The information will be available on the ISTSS web site at http://www.ISTSS.org in mid-May.
MEMORIES OF CHILDHOOD TRAUMA
The following is a summary of Childhood Trauma Remembered (edited by Matthew Friedman, MD, PhD, and Susan Roth, PhD) written by Judy Herman, MD.
Many children, regrettably, experience serious psychological trauma. Children are commonly the victims of physical or sexual abuse; they may also witness violence directed against others. Much of the trauma that children suffer is kept secret and may not be disclosed until years later. Enduring psychological harm may result from traumatic experiences in childhood.
Many traumatized people, children and adults, have vivid and indelible memories of the traumatic event. Paradoxically, some traumatized people do not recall the event for a period of time but recover their memories later. This kind of amnesia has been documented after different kinds of trauma such as natural disaster, combat, and childhood abuse. It is not currently known why some people develop amnesia for traumatic events, nor is it understood how traumatic memories are forgotten or later recovered. These questions are currently the subject of intensive scientific research.
On the basis of documented cases, we know that it is possible for people to recall accurately memories of childhood trauma that they report having previously forgotten. Research findings to date suggest that recovered memories of childhood abuse are generally as accurate as never-forgotten memories. However, all memory is reconstructive and imperfect, and inaccurate memories can be as convincing as accurate ones. There is no established clinical or laboratory procedure for determining the accuracy of childhood memories.
Most memory recovery appears to be triggered in situations that include specific reminders of the original trauma. Psychotherapy does not play a direct part in most memory recovery; indeed, many people who have recovered traumatic childhood memories have never had any psychotherapy. Concerns have been raised, however, about the validity of the memories that arise during the course of psychotherapy. Though there is no evidence that memories recovered in psychotherapy are generally inaccurate, it is well known that some people are particularly vulnerable to suggestion, coercive persuasion, or social influence when reporting memories of past events. It is possible that therapists who fail to conform to accepted standards of practice might exert undue influence over the remembering process in some patients, resulting in a "recovered memory" of an event that never occurred.
Because childhood trauma often plays an important role in adult psychological problems, competent psychotherapists must be prepared to inquire about traumatic experiences in the assessment and treatment of patients. Professionals agree that undue influence is unlikely to occur in the treatment setting if standard principles of therapeutic impartiality and respect for patient self-determination are observed. Clinical practitioners must provide a confidential environment free of shame and intimidation, in which all sorts of distressing experiences can be freely discussed. In this environment, previously undisclosed childhood secrets may be revealed, and previously forgotten traumatic memories may also be recovered. Therapists should neither pressure patients to recover traumatic childhood memories nor suppress the process of recall.
Since there is no standard protocol for establishing the validity of recovered memory in individual cases, therapists must maintain tolerance for uncertainty as patients come to a new understanding of their past experiences. It is up to each patient to come to his or her own conclusions about the truth and accuracy of particular memories.
Similarly, therapists should encourage patients to consider their options carefully but should not instruct or pressure patients to take any particular course of action as a result of recalling childhood trauma. The choice to disclose remembered events, to confront accused perpetrators, or to seek legal redress rests with each individual.
ISTSS Plans Roll Ahead
By Sandra Bloom, MD
Happy Spring everyone. Plans for the annual meeting are rolling ahead and with Liz Kuh's guidance, the program is shaping up, so stay tuned for exciting details. Elana Newman has put an enormous amount of thought and time into developing diverse specialty training courses of interest to clinicians within and outside of the Society. The conference officially opens Friday night on November 20th with a plenary that includes Judy Herman and Gloria Steinem, so I suggest you attend the specialty training courses earlier in the day as well.
Along with this issue of StressPoints, you will find a survey about the impact of managed care on the treatment of trauma survivors and the people who treat them. It is lengthy and will take time to do, but we wanted a complete idea of how the current health-care environment affects you. If this is a passionate concern for you, please feel free to express yourself and return the survey ASAP. Thanks to Bob Dobyns, Rich Epstein, Lyndra Bills, and especially John Fairbank for their contributions to this effort.
Laurie Pearlman and Bruce Litzenberger are leading the effort to distribute the ISTSS pamphlet "Childhood Trauma Remembered: A Report on the Current Scientific Knowledge Base and Its Application." All members will receive a copy, and a condensed version will be published in the May issue of the Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, thanks to Bob Geffner. The document will eventually go up on the Web site and be published in The International Handbook of Violence and Traumatic Stress, edited by Arieh Shalev, Sandy McFarlane, and Rachel Yehuda for Plenum. Publication of the pamphlet is a major accomplishment for the Society and should provide a refreshingly balanced viewpoint in a discourse noted for extreme, sometimes bizarre, viewpoints.
At my request, David Mackey and Ray Scurfield initiated a proposal to develop a broad, multicultural, and diverse membership. The full proposal will be presented at the mid-year Board meeting in June. If you are interested in helping the ISTSS develop a broad-based constituency, please contact David at 914/927-8285 or Ray at 228/214-4703.
Elisa Triffleman and Laura Brown are developing a proposal recommending ways to build active relationships with legislators in hopes of educating representatives about issues surrounding victimization and traumatic stress. They are reviewing how other organizations deal with legislative issues so that the ISTSS can become better informed about options open to us as a nonprofit organizations.
Andy Stone has been laying the groundwork for what we hope will become a Latin American affiliate, and his outreach efforts are generating interest in Mexico, Columbia, and Argentina. His number is 215/823-4061.
The Practice Guidelines Task Force, under the steady hand of Edna Foa, has been working hard. Arieh Shalev designed a template so that each working-group product has uniformity. Several conference calls have been held involving a large group of representatives. Each representative group has position papers due in April and will convene a day before the June Board meeting in Washington, D.C. It is turning out to be a massive, controversial task and thanks go to Edna for structuring and coordinating an approach.
Please take time to fill out the managed care survey. It is one thing you can do to give voice to any frustration you may have around this issue, and we need to hear from you.
Origins and Development of the ISTSS
By Sandra L. Bloom,
This is the first of a series of articles that look at the origins and development of the ISTSS. It includes edited excerpts from Our Hearts and Our Hopes are Turned to Peace: Origins of the ISTSS to be published by Plenum in the new volume, International Handbook of Trauma and Violence, edited by Sandy McFarlane, Arieh Shalev, and Rachel Yehuda.
The ISTSS was born out of the clashing ideologies articulated in the 1960s and 1970s. War crimes, war protests, and war babies; child abuse, incest, and women's liberation; burning monks, burning draft cards, and burning crosses; murdered college kids and show trials of accused radicals; kidnappings, terrorism, and bombings; a citizenry betrayed by its government and mass protests in front of the Capitol -- all play a role in the backgrounds of the people who founded the ISTSS and in the evolution of the organization itself
The origins of the Society can not be placed at the foot of one powerful individual and did not derive from a clearly thought-out, hierarchical, managerial demand. Instead, it has grown organically, from the grassroots and has remained multidisciplinary, multinational, and multiopinioned. One remarkable aspect of the ISTSS history is the extent to which the founding mothers and fathers have had personal experiences with trauma. It may be that it was this close brush with the Angel of Death that has given the growing field such a continuing sense of passion, devotion, and commitment. Whatever the case, there are a multitude of stones begging to be told.
One of those stories is that of Dr. Chaim Shatan. Shatan was familiar with the symptoms of war. His father had fought in three -- the Russo-Japanese War, the Balkan Wars, and the First World War -- before moving from Poland to Canada. His father wrote short stones about his war experiences and the son translated them from Yiddish to English. Shatan had gone to medical school during World War II, when physicians still received training in combat-related disorders and had evaluated men suffering from the traumatic neuroses of war. A New Yorker, Shatan read the New York Times routinely and when he read a story about the tragic death of Vietnam War hero, Sgt. Dwight Johnson, he felt compelled to respond.
Sgt. Dwight "Skip" Johnson, a former altar boy and Eagle Scout, was presented with the Medal of Honor in 1968 for his conduct under fire in Vietnam. After seeing his tank crew burned to death in an attack, he had gone on a rampage and killed a number of enemy soldiers, risking his own life in the process. The face of one of those soldiers haunted him when he came back to the States and despite his celebrity status as a decorated hero, his life gradually unraveled and his mental state deteriorated. Finally on April 30, 1971, Johnson, now married and the father of a little boy, was shot and killed while attempting an armed robbery of a Detroit grocery store. The store owner told the police: "I first hit him with two bullets but he just stood there with the gun in his hand, and said, 'I'm going to kill you,' I kept pulling the trigger until my gun was empty."
In the exchange, Johnson, an experienced combat soldier, never fired a shot. His mother's words echo down to us 27 years later, "Sometimes I wonder if Skip tired of this life and needed someone else to pull the trigger."
Shatan recognized this for the dramatic behavioral reenactment it was and wrote to the New York Times. At the time, Shatan was codirector of the postdoctoral psychoanalytic training clinic at New York University. His editorial was published in May 1972 and titled, "Post-Vietnam Syndrome." In his editorial, Shatan described what came to be called post tramatic stress disorder and told how he had noticed these symptoms in the Vietnam veterans he and his collegues, including Robert Lifton, had been seeing in "group rap" sessions. The response to Shatan's article was overwhelming. He heard from more than 1,250 rap groups from around the country as well as student-health and financial-aid offices on many compuses, and even veterans in prison.
All of the rap groups were functioning outside of the established Veterans Affairs services either because they were past the two-year limit for service-connected disabilities or because they found those employed to administer traditional service geared to World War II veterans, hostile and unwilling to meet their needs. Some of the New York-based veterans asked Shatan and Lifton if there were other professionals who could teach them more about the complex psychological processes attendant upon war experience. Lifton suggested they form more regular rap groups with some professional involvement. With the support of the chairman of the psychoanalytic training program at NYU, Shatan circulated more than three hundred memos asking for professional volunteers to join in efforts to provide clinical consultation to the rap groups. He urged his colleagues to help, telling them: "This is an opportunity to apply our professional expertise and anti-war sentiments to help some of those Americans who have suffered most from the war." The new movement had begun.
Initiative for ISTSS: Toward a
Latin American Society for Traumatic Stress Studies
By Andrew Stone, MD
Contributing editor; human rights
ISTSS needs your help in creating and establishing a new section of ISTSS which will serve Latin America. We hope to develop a network to connect the professionals of the region who work with trauma. This network could be an affiliated component society of ISTSS. Latin America has a rich history of work in trauma, with important knowledge to be shared within its own countries and among the rest of the world. We need to understand PTSD concepts with Latin perspectives on theory and treatment. And in the United States, Latin Americans are becoming an ever more significant segment of the population.
Obvious obstacles include language and money. ISTSS meetings have been primarily in English and expensive to attend, though scholarships have been made available. The Latin American section of ISTSS could be conducted in Spanish and/or Portugese.
The tasks are numerous. Is the ISTSS well-known in South and Central America? How do we tell colleagues about the organzation? A translation of the ISTSS introductory brochure has been started. It must be put into a usable form. Contacts with other mental health professional organziations could be made. The Internet is another form of contact to be explored. If enough people are interested, there would be reason to consider multilingual meetings and/or literature. If we had a newsletter like StressPoints translated into Spanish, researchers from many counties would be able to contribute and exchange ideas. Perhaps in the future, meetings could be held somewhere in South or Central America which would be more accessible to others from the region.
The other current participants in this initiative are Drs. Frida Spiwak in Colombia, Stephanie Fastlicht in Mexico, and Graciela Rodriguez in Argentina. The short-term goal is to gather enough people to charter a new section. Where we go from there will depend on the needs and creativity of the participants. There is no point in doing this as a one-way outreach. The purposes of such a network will have to be derived from the goals, needs, and resouces of its members. A Latin American ISTSS has the potential to share knowledge, overcome geographic and economic isolation, and contribute to the relief and prevention of trauma suffering.
The 1999 ISTSS meetings will be held in Miami, Florida, one of North America's primary gateways to the rest of the Western Hemisphere. This will afford us a unique opportunity to connect with our neighbors. There are many current members who have professional and personal contacts throughout the region, and who could share with their colleagues a sense of the benefits and advantages of ISTSS, and the potential of a Latin American section. Please consider this as invitation to join us in making this idea a reality.
If you have any questions or would like to become involved in this effort, contact Andrew Stone at 215/823-4061 or e-mail <firstname.lastname@example.org>; Frida Spiwak at <email@example.com>; or Stephanie Fastlicht at <firstname.lastname@example.org>.
ISTSS Awards Committee Seeks Nominees
ISTSS recognizes member achievements through an annual awards process. The Awards Committee is seeking nominations for the four awards described below. The Society will present the awards at the Annual Awards Banquet, Nov. 21, 1998 at the Renaissance Hotel, Washington D.C.
Lifetime Achievement Award. This award is the highest honor given by ISTSS. It is awarded to the individaul(s) who has made great lifetime contributions to the field of PTSD. Recent winners include Judith Herman, MD, Lars Weisaeth, MD, Charles Figley, PhD and Edna Foa, PhD.
Chaim Danieli Young Professional Award. This award recognizes excellence in service in service or research in the field of traumatic stress by and individual who has completed his/her training within the last five years. The award was instituted by Yael Danieli, PhD, in memory of her father. Recent recipients include Doug Bremner, MD, Inge Bramsen, PhD, Frank Weathers, PhD Lisa Najavits, PhD and Caron Zlofnick, PhD.
Robert S. Laufer Memorial Award for Outstanding Scientific Achievement. This award is given to an individual or group that has made an outstanding contribution to research in the PTSD field. Ellen Frey-Wouters, PhD, established this award in memory of her husband. Recent winners include Terence Keane, PhD, Arieh Shalev, MD, Roger Pitnam, MD and Zamva Solomon, PhD.
Sarah Haley Memorial Award for Clinical Excellence. This award is given to a clinician in direct service to traumatized individuals and whose written and/or verbal communications to the field exemplify the work of Sarah Haley. Recent reciepients include Laurie Pearlman, PhD, Mary Harvey, PhD, Chaim Shatan, MD and Laura Brown, ABPP.
Nominations should be sent to the Awards Chair Susan Roth, PhD, Duke University/Psych-Social and Health Sciences, P.O. Box 90085, Durham, N.C. 27708, fax919/660-5726. We encourage you to consider candidates from countries outside of North America. The deadline for receipt of nominaitons is July 1. Nominations should include a one-page statement summarizing the major achievements of the nominee and a vitae.
Finding Research Subjects, Collecting Data on WWW
by David Baldwin, PhD
Contributing editor, trauma online
The traumatic-stress field is beginning to make use of the Internet for research and data collection. While we have not reached the Web savvy of some other disciplines, like neuroscience or philosophy, there is clearly progress. Since my last StressPoints column, several new Web sites have appeared that use the Web to identify appropriate subjects or collect data. I'll focus on some of these sites in this column as examples of the potential uses of the internet in trauma research.
A Web page at NIMH lists NIH-sponsored Clinical Studies (intramural and extramural research) at http://www.nimh.nih.gov/studies/.
A related site lets you search for studies in need of subjects by investigator or disease at http://clinicalstudies.info.nih.gov/index.html.
For example, Una McCann, Robert Post and colleagues in the Biological Psychiatry branch at NIMH are seeking subjects for a study using repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) for Acute and Chronic PTSD. The specific URL describing this rTMS study is http://www.cc.nih.gov/cc/bin/clinicalstudies/wais/bold.pl?/u/pfreling/www/studies/detail/A_97-M-0128.html.
This cumbersome URL can also be found through the NIH search engine (above), or at my own site, in Research Participation links near the bottom of page four. Note that the Trauma Information Pages Web site has moved to a new and permanent URL.
The Center Watch site, similar to the one at NIMH, lists clinical trials for new medications and newly approved drug treatments. Center Watch allows easy searching by disease category or geographical region as well as e-mail notification as new trials are added. You can find Center Watch at http://www.centerwatch.com/.
Besides finding research subjects, other uses of the Web might include collecting (or offering) normative psychometric data on scales or symptoms. Of course, not all trauma research topics can appropriately collect data over the Web. Sometimes the topic (e.g., suicidal ideation) may be too risky to collect data so impersonally. In other cases, interviews or personal connection with research participants is required. Still, two new research sites seeking to collect data directly over the Web deserve mention.
Ross Cheit has created an archive of cases and studies concerned with traumatic amnesia at http://www.brown.edu/Departments/Taubman_Center/Recovmem/Archive.html.
This site also seeks additional corroborated "recovered memory" cases. Specific criteria for adding a case are available on site; information can be submitted directly over the Web with a simple form.
A nice example of online trauma data collection is a dissertation study of vicarious traumatization and gender among psychotherapists. Catherine Cardieri, a doctoral student at CW Post campus of Long Island University, is collecting these data with David Pelcovitz. Cardieri created a three-part questionnaire that can easily be filled out directly at http://spring.eecs.umich.edu/cardieri/.
Experienced trauma therapists can visit her site and complete this anonymous form-based questionnaire in about 15 minutes. Researchers and graduate students may also want to visit the latest example of automated clinical data collection in our field.
Several other research uses of the web are linked from the research participation section near the bottom of page four at my own Trauma Information Pages at http://www.trauma-pages.com/.
Please let me know if this column inspires you to create your own Web site for trauma research or data collection -- or if I have missed any current examples. I'll be happy to link to such efforts from my own site, and will try to mention additional research applications in future columns -- particularly those that break new ground in using the Internet for trauma research.
In the Winter 1998 issue of StressPoints (Vol. 12, No. 1, p.8), the names of the authors of the article "Therapist Self-Disclosure Can Be a Balancing Act" were incorrectly listed. The correct byline should read "by---- and ----." Our apologies to the authors.
By Eve Carlson, PhD
National Center for PTDS
Assessing Psychological Trauma and PTSD. Edited by John P. Wilson & Terence M. Keane. New York: The Guilford Press, 1997, 577 pages. Hardbound. $55.00.
In publishing Assessing Psychological Trauma and PTSD, John Wilson and Terence Keane have given us a valuable and needed resource for research and clinical work. These two well-respected trauma experts have put together the first book to focus solely on assessment of trauma and PTSD, bringing together a vast store of useful information about measures and techniques for assessing traumatic experiences and responses. In the field of traumatic stress, the need for this book has increasingly been felt by researchers and clinicians who are faced with a dizzying array of trauma-related measures and with research subjects and clients who experienced a wide variety of traumas and who present with complex, varied, and sundry symptoms.
Good measurement is at the heart of good research and clinical work. In research, valid measures are the basis of strong methodology, and in clinical work, accurate assessments provide the foundation for diagnosis and treatment planning. But in both research and clinical settings, it is frequently difficult to obtain accurate information about traumatic experiences and symptoms that are both disturbing and ambiguous. For a variety of reasons, research subject and clients may not always be forthcoming about their experiences and symptoms. Furthermore, because symptoms of PTSD are very similar to those of other disorders, it can be a great challenge to conduct valid research and make accurate clinical diagnoses.
Wilson and Keane have come to the rescue by gathering together a group of distinguished authors who offer their considerable expertise on measurement in clear and very detailed chapters. The book is divided into three sections that are comprised of 18 chapters. The first section is comprised of chapters on four very basic topics in measurement with reviews covering self-report measures of trauma and PTSD, assessment of child abuse effects in adults, physiological assessment of PTSD, and psychometric theory. All of these chapters are up-to-date and thorough. The chapter on self-reports measures has a particularly useful table containing name, addresses, and phone numbers of contact persons for each measure. The psychometrics theory chapter is a unique and very helpful primer covering both the nuts and bolts of scale construction and some of the more complex statistical approaches used in scale validation. This chapter will be invaluable to any researcher engaged in developing a trauma-related measure, but will also be enlightening for researchers and clinicians who want to better understand and more critically evaluate reports on measure development and validation.
Section II includes chapters addressing the assessment of traumatic reactions across genders and cultures and in a variety of populations (community samples, medical patients, military personnel, children, couples and families, and the bereaved). The chapter on epidemiological methods for assessing PTSD will primarily be of interest to those conducting survey studies or consumers of such research. It details the kind of sophisticated methodology necessary if the results of survey studies are to be generalizable. The other six chapters in this section are directly relevant to both research and clinical work with persons in these particular populations. While all of the chapters provide excellent reviews of the relevant literature and will be useful to clinicians treating clients from the given population, the chapters on children, couples and families, bereaved persons, and those with medical illnesses are especially valuable because there is so little treatment of these topics elsewhere in the trauma literature. The chapter on assessing trauma and trauma responses is exceptionally broad and detailed and covers measures and issues that will be new to many readers.
Section III focuses on the use of specific methods and measures in assessing PTSD. Three of these chapters provide detailed reports of the research on particular measures: a self-report measure of PTSD, a self-report measure of peritraumatic dissociation, and a dissociative disorders structured interview. The other four chapters review methods and techniques for measuring posttraumatic responses, including neuropsychological assessment methods, structured clinical interview techniques, thematic assessment methods, and the Rorschach Ink Blot projective technique.
Assessing Psychological Trauma and PTSD provides a wealth of information about measurement of trauma and trauma responses that will be of great use to both novice and experienced researchers and clinicians. In addition, Wilson, Keane, and the chapter authors have collectively done a great service for the field of traumatic stress. Because of the thoroughness and rigor of this book, they have set high standards for future research and clinical work and provided some tools for others to meet these standards.
By Irene Smith Landsman,
Catholic University of America
Doors Close, Doors Open: Widow, Grieving and Growing, by Morton Lieberman, PhD. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1996, 287 pages. Hardbound $23.95.
This book, based on a large longitudinal research study, may be the best guide for widows and those who would assist them since Parkes' and Weiss' 1983 Recovery from Bereavement. Lieberman identifies pervasive societal and clinical myths regarding the experience and status of widows, and challenges these assumptions with observations based on interviews with some 600 widows both soon after their bereavement and a year or more later.
Liberman's findings challenge the idea that widowhood always represents a pervasive and permanent diminution in emotional well-being, social status, and personal effectiveness. His findings show instead that a substantial portion of widows, despite experiencing significant suffering in the months following a spouse's death, not only return to previous levels of functioning but often experience profound and positive changes in their lives.
From a medical model perspective (which Lieberman characterizes as typically male), bereavement may be considered a kind of pathogen, the symptoms and distress of grief seen as a disease process and successful recovery defined as a return to baseline level of functioning. While the medical model validates the significant distress and suffering which often accompanies grief, it also limits our understanding of the full range of possible outcomes. Lieberman's existential perspective allows the possibility of benefits (such as personal growth) occurring not despite but because of encounters with the existential realities of human life, most particularly mortality.
Lieberman has detailed the connections between existential awareness and post-bereavement growth, describing how engagement in the experience and meaning of bereavement may be necessary precondition for such growth. In so doing, he makes sense of the empirical evidence that such growth may occur in individuals who have even the stormiest courses of grief. Lieberman describes four psychological processes that promote growth, each of which requires a significant degree of honesty and courage. These processes include developing an understanding of one's own self, confronting one's own mortality as well as that of loved ones, engaging in a review of one's life and relationship with the deceased, and searching for personal meaning in life.
In Liberman's study, these existential tasks were often associated with intense distress and turmoil, as some widows "... looked into, rather than away from, their loss and were willing to endure and fully experience their aloneness" (p. 151). At the same time, these experiences were significantly associated with experiences of post-bereavement personal growth.
In addition to its important theoretical and empirical contributions, Doors Close, Doors Open includes a number of valuable observations and explanations that will be of immense comfort and clarification for widows. These include a cogent discussion of society's confused and often unrealistic expectations for widows, the predictable negative effect on widow's self-esteem of being held to unrealistic and conflicting standards, and an enthusiastic endorsement of bereavement support groups. Lieberman, who has also conducted research on the use and benefits of such groups, asserts strongly that they provide a number of things that widows need in their recovery, including realistic information, acceptance, universality, models, and hope for the future.
This book will be valuable for widows at many different stages of recovery, for their families, and for clinicians and researchers who wish to understand the impact of bereavement more completely. The technical appendices provide welcome information about the research design and results, while freeing the narrative from overly-detailed explanations.
ESTSS 6th EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON TRAUMATIC
The evidence base in psychotraumatology continues to develop rapidly. The Sixth European Conference on Traumatic Stress will provide an opportunity to review and update progress in scientific and clinical enquiry. It will also provide a focus for us to consider human rights issues, affecting for example children, refugees, men and women.
The conference is not limited to any particular professional group. All those with involvement in psychotraumatology or human rights are welcome to attend. We hope this meeting will lead to improved networking and support for practitioners in this field in Europe.
The conference language will be English. Simultaneous translation will be provided in plenary sessions. Special symposia will also be arranged in Turkish.
A range of registraiton fees will be offered. Pre and Post conference holiday packages and city tours will be arranged for delegates. To register your interest in participating and to receive further information please contact the conference secretariat interium at + 90 212 278 10 18; fax 280 39 61; e mail, email@example.com
Compiled by Arthur S. Blank Jr., MD
Readers who have recently published or have seen a new article on a traumatic stress topic can have it listed here by sending a copy to Art Blank, Jr., MD, 8 Carderock Ct., Bethesda, MD 20817. If you have recently authored or seen a relevant book, please send a publisher's brochure or other material describing the book.
The following references were published in 1997, unless otherwise noted.
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