Early Interventions SIG
Convene meetings at ISTSS Annual Conferences, and arrange
presentations and/or workshops at those meetings;
Gather information about current developments in and publications
related to early intervention;
Facilitate networking and collaboration among interested ISTSS
members, by establishing an email list; and
Generally, promote study, development, and application of effective
early interventions to prevent development of PTSD and other
Brief Background and
Although most human service professionals believe in the importance
of early intervention post-trauma to prevent development of chronic
psychological problems, there is little agreement as to the appropriate
forms of care. A range of psychological interventions has been advocated
for use with various traumatized populations within days or weeks of
their trauma exposure, including education about trauma and stress
reactions, training in stress-management, critical incident stress
debriefing (CISD), cognitive-behavioral brief intervention packages,
EMDR, and psychopharmacological interventions. Currently, prospective
research studying response to trauma and beginning within hours or days
of the traumatic event is increasing rapidly, and a number of recent
publications have suggested the potential utility of early interventions
in preventing development of PTSD (e.g., Foa, Hearst-Ikeda, & Perry,
1995; Bryant, Harvey, Dang, Sackville, & Basten, 1998). Recent
support for such interventions is occurring at the same time that the
utility of debriefing procedures is being subjected to increased
scrutiny (ISTSS Practice Guidelines on Acute Intervention and
Debriefing; Raphael, Meldrum, & McFarlane, 1995; Rose & Bisson,
1998). These developments are relevant for clinicians, educators,
researchers, and administrators and policy-makers.
|Josef I. Ruzek,
National Center for PTSD
VA Palo Alto Health Care System
795 Willow Road
Menlo Park, CA 94025
Phone: (650) 493-5000 x22977
Patricia Watson, PhD
National Center for PTSD
VA Medical & Regional Office Ctr
White River Junction, VT 05009
Phone: (802) 295-9363 x6071
Fax: (802) 296-5135
New Book on Acute Stress
Disorder: For a good look at the current state of thinking
about the management of acute stress disorder, see Acute stress
disorder: A handbook of theory, assessment, and treatment , written
by Richard Bryant and Allison Harvey (American Psychological Association
press, 2000). This text includes helpful sections on theory, diagnosis,
assessment tools, and legal issues related to ASD. The authors provide a
comprehensive review of research examining the disorder, and their
sections on treatment describe in great detail ? with therapist-patient
transcripts ? the application of their empirically-supported methods of
treating ASD and preventing development of PTSD.
Buy Acute Stress Disorder: A Handbook of Theory, Assessment,
Related to Early Intervention
In addition to the publications below, a Word document
is available for download listing additional resources related to early
interventions. Please send additional suggestions for relevant books and
articles to Sandra Schatz at email@example.com.
Bisson, Jonathan I.
Is post-traumatic stress disorder preventable? [editorial].
Source: Journal of Mental Health (ISSN: 0963-8237), v. 6, no. 2, pp.
109-111 (April 1997).
Bryant, Richard A; Harvey, Allison Gay; Dang, Suzanne T; Sackville,
Tanya; Basten, Chris.
Treatment of acute stress disorder: a comparison of cognitive-
behavioral therapy and supportive counseling . Source: Journal of
Consulting and Clinical Psychology, v. 66, no. 5, pp. 862-866 (October
Bryant, Richard A; Sackville, Tanya; Dang, Suzanne T; Moulds,
Michelle; Guthrie, Rachel
Treating acute stress disorder: an evaluation of cognitive behavior
therapy and supportive counseling techniques
American Journal of Psychiatry, November, 1999.
Burkle, Frederick M.
Title: Acute-phase mental health consequences of disasters: implications
for triage and emergency medical services.
Source: Annals of Emergency Medicine (ISSN: 0196-0644), v. 28, no. 2,
pp. 119-128 (August 1996).
Ford, Julian D; Chandler, Patricia; Thacker, Barbara G; Greaves,
David; Shaw, David; Sennhauser, Shirley; Schwartz, Lawrence.
Family systems therapy after Operation Desert Storm with
Source: Journal of Marital and Family Therapy (ISSN: 0194-472X), v. 24,
no. 2, pp. 243-250 (April 1998).
Jenkins, Sharon Rae.
Social support and debriefing efficacy among emergency medical workers
after a mass shooting incident. Source: Journal of Social Behavior and
Personality (ISSN: 0886-1641), v. 11, no. 3, pp. 477-492 (September
Kudler, Harold S; Davidson, Jonathan R T.
General principles of biological intervention following trauma.
Source: Freedy, John R; Hobfoll, Stevan E (ed.). Traumatic stress: from
theory to practice, pp. 73-101. New York: Plenum Press, 1995. (ISBN:
0-306-45020-8) (Plenum series on stress and coping.
The treatment of acute trauma: post-traumatic stress disorder
Source: Psychiatric Clinics of North America (ISSN: 0193-953X), v. 17,
no. 2, pp. 385-391 (June 1994).
Mellman, Thomas A; Byers, Patricia M; Augenstein, Jeffrey S.
Pilot evaluation of hypnotic medication during acute traumatic stress
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress (ISSN: 0894-9867), v. 11, no. 3, pp.
563-569 (July 1998).
Osterman, Janet E; Chemtob, Claude M.
Emergency intervention for acute traumatic stress.
Source: Psychiatric Services (ISSN: 1075-2730), v. 50, no. 6, pp.
739-740 (June 1999).
Parson, Erwin Randolph.
Mass traumatic terror in Oklahoma City and the phases of adaptational
coping, part II: integration of cognitive, behavioral, dynamic,
existential and pharmacologic interventions.
Source: Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy (ISSN: 0022-0116), v. 25,
no. 4, pp. 267-309 (Winter 1995).
: Rose, Suzanna; Bisson, Jonathan I.
Brief early psychological interventions following trauma: a systematic
review of the literature.
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress (ISSN: 0894-9867), v. 11, no. 4, pp.
697-710 (October 1998).
Solomon, Susan D.
Interventions for acute trauma response.
Source: Current Opinion in Psychiatry (ISSN: 0951-7367), v. 12, pp.
Turnbull, Gordon J; McFarlane, Alexander Cowell. Title: Acute
Source: Van der Kolk, Bessel A; McFarlane, Alexander Cowell; Weisaeth,
Lars (ed.). Traumatic stress: the effects of overwhelming experience on
mind, body, and society, pp. 480-490. New York: Guilford Press, 1996.
Ursano, Robert Joseph; Fullerton, Carol S; Norwood, Ann E.
Psychiatric dimensions of disaster: patient care, community
consultation, and preventive medicine.
Source: Harvard Review of Psychiatry (ISSN: 1067-3229), v. 3, no. 4, pp.
196-209 (November-December 1995).
Links & Resources
Links or pointers connecting the Early Interventions SIG website with
other Internet sites are provided as a courtesy only. The Early
Intervention SIG assumes no responsibility or liability for the accuracy
or completeness of content contained in any linked site or for the
compliance with applicable laws of such linked sites. The content of any
linked site does not necessarily reflect the opinions, standards, or
policies of ISTSS.
National Center for PTSD: The
National Center for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder mission is: To
advance the clinical care and social welfare of America's veterans
through research, education, and training in the science, diagnosis, and
treatment of PTSD and stress-related disorders. This website is provided
as an educational resource concerning PTSD and other enduring
consequences of traumatic stress. Website includes online fact sheets
for the public and for professionals, articles, and website links.
International Critical Incident Stress
Foundation, Inc.: International Critical Incident Stress
Foundation, Inc. is a non-profit, open membership foundation dedicated
to the prevention and mitigation of disabling stress through the
provision of: Education, training and support services for all Emergency
Services professions; Continuing education and training in Emergency
Mental Health Services for the Mental Health Community; and Consultation
in the establishment of Crisis and Disaster Response Programs for varied
organizations and communities worldwide.
Research Education in Disaster Mental
Health (REDMH): Research Education in Disaster Mental Health
(REDMH), funded by the National Institute of Mental Health in July 2003,
strives to improve the quality and utility of disaster mental health
research so that victims of disasters are better understood and served.
The educational goals of REDMH are to inform, instruct, advise, and
mentor disaster researchers. On this site you will find research
summaries to inform the scientific community about topics salient after
major disasters, instructional materials such as summaries from a book
on research education in disaster mental health, contact information for
those looking for advising on a particular project, and information
about a mentoring program for promising newcomers to the field.
Project Liberty: Project
Liberty, which was created in 2001 to provide supportive crisis
counseling to individuals and groups affected by the World Trade Center
disaster, has phased down operations. This web site has been redesigned
primarily to link individuals and groups to services that will help them
to continue to cope with the aftereffects of the World Trade Center
Deployment Health Clinical
Center:The Center core mission is to improve deployment health
care by providing caring assistance and advocacy for military personnel
and families with post deployment health concerns while simultaneously
serving as a catalyst and resource for the continuous improvement of
deployment health care across the Military Health System.
National Child Traumatic Stress Network
(NCTSN): Treatment centers from all over the United States have
come together to form a new coalition, the National Child Traumatic
Stress Network (NCTSN). The Network, which is currently comprised of 54
centers, is being funded by the Center for Mental Health Services,
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, US Department
of Health and Human Services through a Congressional initiative, the Donald J. Cohen National Child Traumatic Stress
Initiative. This Congressional initiative recognizes the profound,
destructive, and widespread impact of trauma on American children's
lives. Its purpose is to improve the quality, effectiveness, provision,
and availability of therapeutic services delivered to all children and
adolescents experiencing traumatic events. The Network will develop and
disseminate effective, evidence-based treatments; collect data for
systematic study; and help to educate professionals and the public about
the effects of trauma on children.
VA-Department of Defense Clinical
Practice Guideline:: This set of recommendations includes
guidance for the management of Acute Post-Trauma Stress in the early
days after exposure to trauma in civilian (ASR) and in combat or ongoing
military operations. Each module includes criteria useful to identify
persons with stress reactions who have a greater probability of
developing PTSD and who therefore would benefit from early brief
intervention. The management of ASD and PTSD in primary care and mental
health specialties includes recommendations for pharmacology and
Center for the Study of Traumatic
Stress: The Center is working to increase knowledge of the
consequences of trauma and disaster and to apply this knowledge to
helping people cope with traumatic events. The Center provides
education, consultation and training to the U.S. and its communities on
the effects of trauma and disaster and individual and organizational
recovery following these events while maintaining a wide-ranging,
vigorous research program to extend our knowledge of the consequences of
This Events section represents an effort to provide members with
up-to-date information about current conferences and events relating to
Members are encouraged to submit information on upcoming events to be
posted on the site. Until further notice, please send event information
to Joe Ruzek at Josef.Ruzek@med.va.gov. Please include the name of the
event, a brief description (no more than 2 sentences), a link to
additional information or a way for members to request additional
information, dates/times, location, fees, and continuing education
information. This section will be as robust as our members make it, so
please be sure to forward information as you become aware of it.
Note: Posting of events in this section does not imply endorsement by
the ISTSS Early Intervention SIG. All submissions falling within
relevance parameters are accepted. Relevance parameters include direct
relation to Early Intervention developments, treatments, trainings,
research, and theory.
Disaster Mental Health Institute
Innovations in Disaster Mental Health
September 7-9, 2006
Black Hills, South Dakota, USA
Innovations in disaster mental health
Australasian Society for Traumatic Stress Studies
Linking Research Knowledge with Policy and Practice:
Evidence for Best Practice in Traumatic Stress
September 14-16, 2006
2006 Rocky Mountain Region Annual Disaster Mental Health
Taking Charge in Troubled Times:
Response, Resilience, Recovery and Follow-Up
November 8-11, 2006
Casper, Whyoming, USA
Forum and Listserv Information
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and does not undertake editorial control of postings. Nevertheless, the
Early Interventions SIG retains the right to monitor posted information
and remove messages or materials that it believes are not in the best
interests of ISTSS.